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- 4* Ural hotel Ekaterinburg
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Ekaterinburg, Russia. General info.

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Ekaterinburg History: 20th century

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Ekaterinburg - 20th century

The beginning of the 20th century became the end of tsarist Russia. The family of last Russian emperor Nikolay II, the Romanovs, spent their last days in Ekaterinburg. The Romanovs were assassinated in Ekaterinburg, in 1918. In general, three murders of the House of Romanovs were committed on the Ural. Mikhail Romanov, the younger brother of Nikolay II, was murdered in Perm town, though his grave was not found. Close relatives of the Romanovs, princes Romanov, were killed in Alapaevsk (it's in 100 km from Ekaterinburg) and the whole family of Nikolay II was murdered in Ekaterinburg.

The last Russian monarch Nikolay II, his family and servants - doctor Botkin, cook Charitonov, maiden Demidova and lackey Troop - who didn't leave their tsar were executed by shooting. They were executed at 11.30 p.m., at the former mansion of merchant Ipatyev. Shooting went under the command of Yrovsky J.M. He read out the decision of the Ural council. At first Nikolay II, his wife Alexandra Fedorovna, daughters Anastasia, Olga, Tatiana, Maria and son Aleksey were shoot, than solders bayoneted and beat up with rifle butts those who were still alive. After that, solders hided murder's "signs" with hydrochloric acid. All these murders took place in 1918. People tried to investigate strange circumstances of the House of Romanovs's death, but it was not a success. Now there is the temple on that place were the Romanov's were shoot. This temple is called "Church - the monument on spilled Blood, for the sake of all Saints of Russia" or "the Church on spilled Blood". There is also a unique place not far from Ekaterinburg, where remains of last tsar and his family were buried. This place is called Ganin Pit (Ganina Yama) and presents a group of wooden churches, built in commemoration of Holly Royal Martyrs.

At the beginning of 20th century, light and food industry were developing. Large financial intermediaries, such as Siberian Trading Bank, Volgsko-Kamsky Bank, brunches of Russian Foreign Trade Bank and Russian-Asian Bank were open. Railway system was also developing. These facts caused activity on the city's market. Population of Ekaterinburg increased. In 1897, it was 42,2 thousand people and in 1917 it was 71,5 thousand people already.
Evidently Ekaterinburg couldn't be considered as a chief town of district already. In January 1918, Ekaterinburg acquired name of Ekaterinburg province, and in 1923 it became administrative centre of the Ural Oblast. The Ural Oblast united Ekaterinburg province as well as Perm, Tjumen and Chelybinsk provinces.

The Ural Oblast was larger than the modern Ural Federal Region.

In 1924, the capital of the Ural Oblast, Ekaterinburg, was renamed into Sverdlovsk, in honor of Sverdlov Y. M., one of the leaders of Bolshevik party. In 1963, one of the central streets in Sverdlovsk also got the name of Lenin's companion-in-arms, statesman Sverdlov Y.M. and became the Sverdlov Street. In January, 1934, the Ural Oblast was divided into smaller territories, and Sverdlovsk became the administrative centre of the Sverdlovsk Oblast.
During the period of first five-year plans, Ekaterinburg obtained the role of industrial and transport centre at the border of Europe and Asia.

In 1933 Ural Heavy Machines Plant (Uralmash) began its work, another plant, Elmash, was built in 1935. Finally, in 1940, Turbine Motor Plant was started. Besides, old Verch-Isetsky Plant applied in industry new technology of transformer steel production. At the same time railway junction was reconstructed. Moreover, air communication with Moscow and Irkutsk appeared in 1930. Meanwhile, Sverdlovsk was turning into scientific and educational centre. The first institute of higher education, The Ural State University, was found in 1920. In 1940, there were 12 universities already. In 1932, the branch of Academy of Sciences of USSR was opened in Ekaterinburg. Also there were 27 branch-wise research institutions in the city.

During the World War II, Sverdlovsk contributed to fascists's defeat. In 1941, about 15 thousand of inhabitants went to defend their homeland. Later 62 front-line soldiers from Sverdlovsk became Heroes of Soviet Union. During the war, many plants were evacuated into Sverdlovsk. 100% of heavy tanks for Soviet Army were made on the Urals.

The greater part of equipment and personnel were sent to Sverdlovsk from the front line. Uralmash Plant produced light tanks till 1942. But when Stalingrad was under the threat, Uralmash began production of tanks T-34. In autumn, this plant was the only plant that produced middle ground support gun on the base of T-34.

Inhabitants of the city made everything to help their native city during the war.
For example, brave scout Kuznecov N.I. fulfilled extremely difficult tasks. Soviet Headquarters got important military information and confidential documents with his help. Kuznecov N. I. worked as engineer at Uralmash Plant since 1935 till 1936.

Though Sverdlovsk was in hinterland, it became one of the biggest evacuation centers in the country. Urals's capital received about 50 big plants and factories, scientific organizations which were occupied by enemies or very close to the front line.


enlarged production and with the help of evacuated enterprises expanded war industry in 7 times. Enterprises of light and food industry provided front with uniform, shoos and food.

During the war, Sverdlovsk became the largest scientific, cultural and educational center. A number of institutions of Academy of Sciences, several branch-wise institutions, Moscow theaters, museums and publishing houses were evacuated to Sverdlovsk with the beginning of military operations. Gradual economical, social and cultural development of Sverdlovsk continued till 1980. Traditionally, machinery construction formed the basis of the city's economy. Meanwhile, enterprises which were oriented to people's needs appeared. They were worsted and fat industrial complexes, knitting factory, confectionary plant, pottery, gypsum plant, enterprise of large-panel building.
Large-scale house-building began, new big residential areas appeared. In 1967, population was over 1 million people. In 1970 there were 14 higher educational institutions, about 100 research institutions and design offices. The Ural branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences became the Ural Scientific Center. In 1973, Sverdlovsk got Lenin's order for a successful social and economical development and in connection with 250 anniversary. Lenin's order was the highest reward in the Soviet Union and the city was proud of it by right.

In 1991, Sverdlovsk (it was renamed in Ekaterinburg again. It happened in September, 1991), as well as the whole Russia, entered a new phase. The USSR didn't exit anymore. There were a few independent countries and the main country was the Russian Federation. It was the time of economic reforms. As a result production volume reduced. But, in 1998, industrial production was stabilized again, and it continued to increase during next years. Ekaterinburg turned into independent, economic mechanism. Its development was determined not by the level of industrial production only but by trade, non-manufacturing business and financial market.

After the war, industry was stabilizing very quickly. Machine-Building Plant named after Kalinin M.I. began to produce modern defense technology; also, new technologies were invented. Many military enterprises were located near Ekaterinburg and soon Ekaterinburg became closed city. It was open again only when wartime was in the past.

Nuclear station, Beloyarskaya, was built in 35 km from Ekaterinburg. It was one of the first attempts to use atom for peaceful aims. Now people make good use of this station and ecologists' tests show that there is no harmful radiation in its area.

Now demands of the times define city's changes. At the beginning Ekaterinburg combined functions of industrial and scientific center only, later it became multifunctional center. Now it is a big city, it is an industrial, financial and informative center of the Ural. All this helps to integrate Ekaterinburg into world economy, national and regional innovation processes and to provide good conditions for its inhabitants.

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